Which vs. That: How to Choose Shundalyn Allen

  • In a defining clause, use that.
  • In non-defining clauses, use which.
  • Remember, which is as disposable as a sandwich bag. If you can remove the clause without destroying the meaning of the sentence, the clause is nonessential and you can use which.

People use which and that every day. Just because these words are common doesn’t mean they’re easy to use. In particular, clauses cause a lot of confusion, but there’s an easy way to remember which one to choose.

To understand when to use that or which, it’s important to understand clauses. A defining clause (also called an essential clause or a restrictive clause) gives information essential to the meaning of the sentence. That is used in defining clauses. Here’s an example:

My bike that has a broken seat is in the garage.

In this sentence, you understand that the speaker has at least one other bike. Specifically, the bike he’s talking about is distinguished from his other bikes by its broken seat. If you removed the clause “that has a broken seat,” you would lose the implication that he owns more than one bicycle, and even if you somehow knew about the other bikes, you wouldn’t know which one was in the garage.

Which introduces non-defining clauses. Unlike defining clauses, non-defining clauses (also called nonessential or nonrestrictive clauses) don’t limit the meaning of the sentence. You might lose interesting details if you remove them, but the meaning of the sentence wouldn’t change. Sometimes, these phrases are set off by commas.

My bike, which has a broken seat, is in the garage.

Here, the broken seat seat is simply a description of the bike in the garage. There’s no implication that the speaker owns more than one bike. Do you see the difference? Perhaps a little mnemonic device will help you to remember how to choose between that or which.

How to Remember the Difference Between That and Which

Because non-defining clauses add removable information, it’s easy to remember to use which if you think of a plastic sandwich bag. They are disposable, and so are clauses with which. Let’s look at some examples from real life.

Examples of That and Which

By three methods we may learn wisdom: First, by reflection, which is noblest; Second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third by experience, which is the bitterest.
To be yourself in a world that is constantly trying to make you something else is the greatest accomplishment.
 Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things that you didn’t do than by the ones you did do. . . . Sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Discover.

 

Which and that are common words, but they are important. By identifying your clauses as defining or non-defining, you can easily remember when to use which and when to use that. If you are ready to learn more, study up on defining and non-defining clauses.

 

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Posted on Grammarly Facebook Page on January 12, 2016

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Random Thoughts, Looking Back By Thomas Sowell

Any honest man, looking back on a very long life, must admit — even if only to himself — being a relic of a bygone era. Having lived long enough to have seen both “the greatest generation” that fought World War II and the gratingest generation that we see all around us today, makes being a relic of the past more of a boast than an admission.

Not everything in the past was admirable. Poet W.H. Auden called the 1930s “a low dishonest decade.” So were the 1960s, which launched many of the trends we are experiencing so painfully today. Some of the fashionable notions of the 1930s reappeared in the 1960s, often using the very same discredited words and producing the same disastrous consequences.

The old are not really smarter than the young, in terms of sheer brainpower. It is just that we have already made the kinds of mistakes that the young are about to make, and we have already suffered the consequences that the young are going to suffer, if they disregard the record of the past.

If you want to understand the fatal dangers facing America today, read “The Gathering Storm” by Winston Churchill. The book is not about America, the Middle East or nuclear missiles. But it shows Europe’s attitudes and delusions — aimed at peace in the years before the Second World War — which instead ended up bringing on that most terrible war in all of human history.

Black adults, during the years when I was growing up in Harlem, had far less education than black adults today — but far more common sense. In an age of artificial intelligence, too many of our schools and colleges are producing artificial stupidity, among both blacks and whites.

You cannot live a long life without having been forced to change your mind many times about people and things — including in some cases, your whole view of the world. Those who glorify the young today do them a great disservice, when this sends inexperienced young people out into the world cocksure about things on which they have barely scratched the surface.

In my first overseas trip, I was struck by blatantly obvious differences in behavior among different groups, such as the Malays and the Chinese in Malaysia — and wondered why scholars who were far more well-traveled than I was seemed not to have noticed such things, and to have resorted to all sorts of esoteric theories to explain why some groups earned higher incomes than others.

There are words that were once common, but which are seldom heard any more. The phrase “none of your business” is one of these. Today, everything seems to be the government’s business or the media’s business. And the word “risque” would be almost impossible to explain to young people, in a world where gross vulgarity is widespread and widely accepted.

Back when I taught at UCLA, I was constantly amazed at how little so many students knew. Finally, I could no longer restrain myself from asking a student the question that had long puzzled me: “What were you doing for the last 12 years before you got here?”

Reading about the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, and the widespread retrogressions of Western civilization that followed, was an experience that was sobering, if not crushing. Ancient history in general lets us know how long human beings have been the way they are, and dampens giddy zeal for the latest panaceas, despite how politically correct those panaceas may be.

When I was growing up, we were taught the stories of people whose inventions and scientific discoveries had expanded the lives of millions of other people. Today, students are being taught to admire those who complain, denounce and demand.

The first column I ever wrote, 39 years ago, was titled “The Profits of Doom.” This was long before Al Gore made millions of dollars promoting global warming hysteria. Back in 1970, the prevailing hysteria was the threat of a new ice age — promoted by some of the same environmentalists who are promoting global warming hysteria today.

Thomas Sowell, a National Humanities Medal winner, is an American economist, social theorist, political philosopher and author. He is currently Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.
 
 

Published: December 27, 2016

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Drop Everything and Read By Darryl Dash

Drop Everything and Read

When my kids were younger they attended schools with an initiative called “Drop Everything and Read.” The idea was simple. Students could pick their own book, lay aside other obligations, and read for the joy of it. There would be no tests or reports. I loved the idea.

I remember feeling jealous. Reading is one of my favorite activities, but it’s hard to find the time. I read at night before going to bed, but I’m increasingly reading fiction then. It’s a lot more conducive to rest. I’ve been struggling to read the same number of nonfiction books. This is a serious issue. Reading is key to leadership and pastoring.

A couple of things have happened to change this.

First, I asked a friend recently about the books he’s reading. He’s plowing his way through some hefty books. He gives himself permission to read during the day as part of his regular routine as a pastor. It’s part of his job.

Second, I’ve been doing some planning for the coming year. In particular, I’ve been looking at activities that are strategic, enjoyable, and easy to ignore. One of these is reading.

“Drop everything and read” is a good idea for pastors too.

Not a Leftover Activity

When we leave reading for when we have time, we’ll seldom read. Reading isn’t just an activity to pursue when everything else is done. It’s an activity for the times that we’re busy, stretched, and frantic. In fact, it may be even more important during these times.

Todd Henry writes about the importance of intentionally scheduling activities like reading and rest:

When will you study, read, or experience other stimuli this week? When will you have time to yourself to strategize and generate ideas for your projects? When will you take a walk or exercise? What does your sleep schedule look like this week? Are there any late nights? If so, what does that mean about what should happen the next morning?

Again, in all these things we are not attempting to strike some kind of “life balance.” We are simply being strategic about managing energy so that we have it when we need it to generate ideas. If we are wise in our energy management, we will find that ideas emerge when we least expect them.

Reading is not an activity for when everything else is done. It’s an activity to put in our schedules first. We must guard and protect this time to nourish our minds and our souls.

Set a Reading Habit

I’ve set a modest goal of reading thirty minutes every workday, even when I’m really busy. I’m keeping a list of books I want to read in my bullet journal, and I’m setting the timer every day and reading. Reading for thirty minutes a day, even for four days a week, should add up to 1,250,000 words in a year for the average reader. This works out to some 20 books, depending on their length.

I invite you to set a reading habit along with me. Put it in your schedule, and guard that time. If you need inspiration, check out the 2017 Reading Challenge at Challies.com.

 

From: http://dashhouse.com/drop-everything-read/

 

Published: December 22, 2016

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Have You Heard Of An Incunable Book Before? See Why They’re So Rare And Valuable Here! By Crafty House

For the bookworms among us (people, not actual worms), old books are some of our most treasured possessions. But I doubt you own any books quite this old.

If you own an incunable book, that means you own one of the oldest printed books in existence. To be considered incunable, a book must have been printed (not hand-written!) before the year 1501. That is, within the first 50 years of the time that the printing press was invented and put to use.

Luckily, if you own an incunable book, the condition it’s in, including bookworm holes, doesn’t matter too terribly much. After all, it’s difficult to keep a book that’s over 500 years old looking like new!

Do you know someone who owns an incunable book? Have you ever seen one? Would you like to? Well the good folks of Pawn Stars bought one. So maybe it’s time to take a little trip. Or you can just see this extraordinary book with a surprising feature in the video below.

In this video, a man brings his incunable book in to find out what it’s worth. This book in particular is pigskin-bound and dates back to 1484. Find out what people are willing to pay for a book this old and why in the segment from Pawn Stars below.

 

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II Samuel–The Bible Project

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My Five Star Fiction From 2016

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Reader discretion advised.

 

 

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The First Hostage

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A Prayer For The New Year

Another year is dawning, dear Father, let it be
In working or in waiting, another year with Thee.
Another year of progress, another year of praise,
Another year of proving Thy presence all the days.

Another year of mercies, of faithfulness and grace,
Another year of gladness in the shining of Thy face;
Another year of leaning upon Thy loving breast;
Another year of trusting, of quiet, happy rest.

Another year of service, of witness for Thy love,
Another year of training for holier work above.
Another year is dawning, dear Father, let it be
On earth, or else in Heaven, another year for Thee.

— Frances Havergal (1874)

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