A Christmas Carol author Charles Dickens suffered post-traumatic stress from a train disaster that killed 10 and wounded 40, a newly-discovered letter suggests.
Seven carriages plunged off a bridge in the Staplehurst rail crash of 1865 after a train derailed crossing the Kent viaduct.
Not only did the great novelist survive, but he tended to victims, some of whom died in front of him.
A sketch of the Staplehurst rail crash in Kent shows how seven carriages plunged from the viaduct. Dickens wrote about the accident in a letter to his friend
The Oliver Twist writer described the traumatic effects the crash had on him two months later.
It left him fearful of travelling on trains, which he was regularly forced to do from his north Kent home to his work in London.
In the letter to friend and French opera singer Pauline Viardot, he wrote: ‘I thank you for your kind and affectionate letter received after my escape from that terrible accident.
‘The scene was so affecting when I helped in getting out the wounded and dead, that for a little while afterwards I felt shaken by the remembrance of it.
The letter tells how Dickens witnessed people die after the crash, which killed 10 and wounded 40 after a train derailed over a Kent viaduct
‘But I had no personal injury whatsoever. My watch (which is curious) was more sensitive, physically, than I; for it was some few minutes “slow” for some few weeks afterwards.
‘Except that I cannot yet travel on a railway, at great speed, without having a disagreeable impression – against all reason – that the carriage is turning on one side, I have not the least inconvenience left.’
The letter now belongs to a European-based collector but is coming up for sale at Sotheby’s in London.
Gabriel Heaton, of Sotheby’s, said the letter was fascinating as, despite the trauma Dickens suffered, it still brought out the story-teller in him.
‘This accident was quite an important biographical aspect of Dickens’ later life,’ he said.
‘He was a very well known figure at the time and so it was common knowledge that he survived it.
‘He was a prolific letter writer but it is rare to come across a letter that contains quite a powerful account like this written quite soon after the accident.
‘Several people were killed in the crash and someone died in front of him. It was a highly traumatic event and not surprising it had quite a long-term effect on him.
Scrooge sees Marley’s ghost in A Christmas Carol, written by novelist Charles Dickens, who was lucky to survive the Staplehurst crash
‘But what is particularly striking about this letter is the detail about his watch.
‘He is trying to make sense of this traumatic event and, being a great story teller of his time, he turns it to a narrative.
‘The detail about his watch running slow ever since is just the sort of thing he would draw on. It is the mark of a great storyteller.
‘He wrote this letter to someone he knew well and trusted.’
‘It’s very interesting.’
Dickens met Pauline Viardot while staying in Paris in 1855 and heard her sing on many occasions.
It was through her that Dickens met other Parisian cultural figures such as George Sand.
The letter is being sold with a pre-sale estimate of £5,000 tomorrow.
A manuscript written by Queen Elizabeth I has been discovered after lying unnoticed for more than a century.
A literary historian from the University of East Anglia made the startling find in Lambeth Palace Library in London.
He turned detective to piece together a series of clues to establish that the queen was the author of the writings.
The work is a translation of a book in which the Roman historian Tacitus wrote of the benefits of monarchical rule.
It was while searching in the library for translations of Tacitus that Dr John-Mark Philo found the mysterious 42-page manuscript.
He established it was written on a very specific kind of paper, which had “gained special prominence” in the Tudor Court in the 1590s.
“There was, however, only one translator at the Tudor court to whom a translation of Tacitus was ascribed by a contemporary, and who was using the same paper in her translations and private correspondence – the queen herself,” added Dr Philo.
A further clue was the presence of three watermarks – a rampant lion and the initials G.B with a crossbow countermark – which are also found on the paper Elizabeth I used in her personal correspondence.
But the clinching argument was the handwriting. The translation was copied by one of her secretaries but it is covered in corrections and additions which match the queen’s highly distinctive, indeed rather messy, handweiting.
“The corrections made to the translation are a match for Elizabeth’s late hand, which was, to put it mildly, idiosyncratic,” said Dr Philo.
“The higher you are in the social hierarchy of Tudor England, the messier you can let your handwriting become. For the queen, comprehension is somebody else’s problem.”
Dr Philo suggested the monarch might have been studying the text for guidance on how to rule.
The translation is from Tacitus’s history of the Roman Empire and traces the death of Augustus, the rise of the Emperor Tiberius and the centralisation of power in a single individual.
Dr Philo said Tacitus “has always been considered the subversive historian, and was later reviled under Charles I as anti-monarchical”, which raises questions about why it would be of interest to Elizabeth. Was she drawing upon it for guidance on how to rule or for examples of misrule to be avoided?
Alternatively, the translation could just have been a hobby for a queen who is known to have enjoyed classical history.
The manuscript has been at Lambeth since the 17th Century but it is the first time the author has been identified.
Elizabeth I’s Translation of Tacitus is published on 29 November 2019 in the Review of English Studies.
The history of the holiday meal tells us that turkey was always the centerpiece, but other courses have since disappeared
Today, the traditional Thanksgiving dinner includes any number of dishes: turkey, stuffing, mashed potatoes, candied yams, cranberry sauce and pumpkin pie. But if one were to create a historically accurate feast, consisting of only those foods that historians are certain were served at the so-called “first Thanksgiving,” there would be slimmer pickings. “Wildfowl was there. Corn, in grain form for bread or for porridge, was there. Venison was there,” says Kathleen Wall. “These are absolutes.”
Two primary sources—the only surviving documents that reference the meal—confirm that these staples were part of the harvest celebration shared by the Pilgrims and Wampanoag at Plymouth Colony in 1621. Edward Winslow, an English leader who attended, wrote home to a friend:
“Our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling, that so we might after a special manner rejoice together after we had gathered the fruit of our labors. They four in one day killed as much fowl as, with a little help beside, served the company almost a week. At which time, amongst other recreations, we exercised our arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and among the rest their greatest king Massasoit, with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted, and they went out and killed five deer, which they brought to the plantation and bestowed on our governor, and upon the captain and others.”
William Bradford, the governor Winslow mentions, also described the autumn of 1621, adding, “And besides waterfowl there was great store of wild turkeys, of which they took many, besides venison, etc. Besides, they had about a peck a meal a week to a person, or now since harvest, Indian corn to that proportion.”
But determining what else the colonists and Wampanoag might have eaten at the 17th-century feast takes some digging. To form educated guesses, Wall, a foodways culinarian at Plimoth Plantation, a living history museum in Plymouth, Massachusetts, studies cookbooks and descriptions of gardens from the period, archaeological remains such as pollen samples that might clue her in to what the colonists were growing.
Our discussion begins with the bird. Turkey was not the centerpiece of the meal, as it is today, explains Wall. Though it is possible the colonists and American Indians cooked wild turkey, she suspects that goose or duck was the wildfowl of choice. In her research, she has found that swan and passenger pigeons would have been available as well. “Passenger pigeons—extinct in the wild for over a century now—were so thick in the 1620s, they said you could hear them a quarter-hour before you saw them,” says Wall. “They say a man could shoot at the birds in flight and bring down 200.”
Small birds were often spit-roasted, while larger birds were boiled. “I also think some birds—in a lot of recipes you see this—were boiled first, then roasted to finish them off. Or things are roasted first and then boiled,” says Wall. “The early roasting gives them nicer flavor, sort of caramelizes them on the outside and makes the broth darker.”
It is possible that the birds were stuffed, though probably not with bread. (Bread, made from maize not wheat, was likely a part of the meal, but exactly how it was made is unknown.) The Pilgrims instead stuffed birds with chunks of onion and herbs. “There is a wonderful stuffing for goose in the 17th-century that is just shelled chestnuts,” says Wall. “I am thinking of that right now, and it is sounding very nice.” Since the first Thanksgiving was a three-day celebration, she adds, “I have no doubt whatsoever that birds that are roasted one day, the remains of them are all thrown in a pot and boiled up to make broth the next day. That broth thickened with grain to make a pottage.”
In addition to wildfowl and deer, the colonists and Wampanoag probably ate eels and shellfish, such as lobster, clams and mussels. “They were drying shellfish and smoking other sorts of fish,” says Wall.
According to the culinarian, the Wampanoag, like most eastern woodlands people, had a “varied and extremely good diet.” The forest provided chestnuts, walnuts and beechnuts. “They grew flint corn (multicolored Indian corn), and that was their staple. They grew beans, which they used from when they were small and green until when they were mature,” says Wall. “They also had different sorts of pumpkins or squashes.”
As we are taught in school, the Indians showed the colonists how to plant native crops. “The English colonists plant gardens in March of 1620 and 1621,” says Wall. “We don’t know exactly what’s in those gardens. But in later sources, they talk about turnips, carrots, onions, garlic and pumpkins as the sorts of things that they were growing.”
Of course, to some extent, the exercise of reimagining the spread of food at the 1621 celebration becomes a process of elimination. “You look at what an English celebration in England is at this time. What are the things on the table? You see lots of pies in the first course and in the second course, meat and fish pies. To cook a turkey in a pie was not terribly uncommon,” says Wall. “But it is like, no, the pastry isn’t there.” The colonists did not have butter and wheat flour to make crusts for pies and tarts. (That’s right: No pumpkin pie!) “That is a blank in the table, for an English eye. So what are they putting on instead? I think meat, meat and more meat,” says Wall.
Meat without potatoes, that is. White potatoes, originating in South America, and sweet potatoes, from the Caribbean, had yet to infiltrate North America. Also, there would have been no cranberry sauce. It would be another 50 years before an Englishman wrote about boiling cranberries and sugar into a “Sauce to eat with. . . .Meat.” Says Wall: “If there was beer, there were only a couple of gallons for 150 people for three days.” She thinks that to wash it all down the English and Wampanoag drank water.
All this, naturally, begs a follow-up question. So how did the Thanksgiving menu evolve into what it is today?
Wall explains that the Thanksgiving holiday, as we know it, took root in the mid-19th century. At this time, Edward Winslow’s letter, printed in a pamphlet called Mourt’s Relation, and Governor Bradford’s manuscript, titled Of Plimoth Plantation, were rediscovered and published. Boston clergyman Alexander Young printed Winslow’s letter in his Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers, and in the footnotes to the resurrected letter, he somewhat arbitrarily declared the feast the first Thanksgiving. (Wall and others at Plimoth Plantation prefer to call it “the harvest celebration in 1621.”) There was nostalgia for colonial times, and by the 1850s, most states and territories were celebrating Thanksgiving.
Sarah Josepha Hale, editor of the popular women’s magazine Godey’s Lady’s Book, , a real trendsetter for running a household, was a leading voice in establishing Thanksgiving as an annual event. Beginning in 1827, Hale petitioned 13 presidents, the last of whom was Abraham Lincoln. She pitched her idea to President Lincoln as a way to unite the country in the midst of the Civil War, and, in 1863, he made Thanksgiving a national holiday.
Throughout her campaign, Hale printed Thanksgiving recipes and menus in Godey’s Lady’s Book. She also published close to a dozen cookbooks. “She is really planting this idea in the heads of lots of women that this is something they should want to do,” says Wall. “So when there finally is a national day of Thanksgiving, there is a whole body of women who are ready for it, who know what to do because she told them. A lot of the food that we think of—roast turkey with sage dressing, creamed onions, mashed turnips, even some of the mashed potato dishes, which were kind of exotic then—are there.”
In his book, West Like Lightning: The Brief Legendary Ride of the Pony Express, Jim DeFelice chronicles the 18-month span of one of the most fabled epochs of Old West history. DeFelice describes every stop on the historic route across the country while highlighting the famous and infamous men who rode the route as well as those who financed the journey. DeFelice concludes the book by examining the causes of the very short life of this ambitious endeavor.
West Like Lightning is well-written and well-researched. The author retraces every station on the Express himself, which adds to the volume’s authenticity. The narrative is gripping, entertaining, and informative, allowing the reader to experience the ride.The only downside to this book is that it ends too abruptly, much like the Pony Express itself. However, West Like Lightning, is history and adventure combined, an excellent read, and I highly recommend it.